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Why To Store Umbilical Cord

Stem Cells “Building blocks of the body”

Stem cells are essentially the building blocks of the human body. Stem cells are capable of dividing for long period of time, are unspecialized, but can develop into specialized cells. The earliest stem cells in the human body are those found in the human embryo. The stem cells inside an embryo will eventually give rise to every cell, tissue and organ in the foetus body. Unlike a regular cell, which can only replicate to create more of its own kind of cell, a stem cell is pluripotent. When it divides, it can make any one of the 220 different cells in the human body. Stem cells also have the capability to self-renew — they can reproduce themselves many times over.

There are several types of stem cells, including:

Embryonic stem cells

  • Embryonic stem cells include those found within the embryo, the foetus or the umbilical cord blood depending upon when they are harvested, embryonic stem cells can give rise to just about any cell in the human body.

Adult stem cells

  • Adult stem cells can be found in infants, children and adults. They reside in already developed tissues such as those of the heart, brain and kidney. They usually give rise to cells within their resident organs.

Induced pluripotent stem cells (IPSC)

  • These stem cells are adult, differentiated cells that have been experimentally “reprogrammed” into a stem cell-like state.

Umbilical Cord Blood Stem Cells

Cord-blood banking basically means collecting and storing the blood from within the umbilical cord (the part of the placenta that delivers nutrients to a foetus) after a baby is born. Cord blood contains blood-forming stem cells, which are potentially useful for treating diseases that require stem cell transplants (also called bone marrow transplants), such as certain kinds of leukemia or lymphoma, aplastic anemia, severe sickle cell disease, and severe combined immunodeficiency The value of cord blood stem cells over bone marrow.

Cord Blood Transplant versus Bone Marrow Transplant

When deciding between whether a cord blood transplant or a bone marrow transplant is a better choice for you, it is important to look at a broad range of criteria:

Graft vs Host Disease

  • Graft Versus Host Disease (GVHD) can be fatal in up to 40% of patients. Unlike bone marrow, cord blood is more primitive and therefore there is a lower chance that cord blood cells will attack the recipient’s body, resulting in a lower incidence of GVHD.

HLA Matching

  • In order for a transplant to be successful, a match that is as close as possible is needed in order to reduce the risk of GVHD. Because stem cells found in cord blood are primitive, they are more adaptable and so a perfect match is not needed. This allows for a wider range of recipients to be treated and reduces the risk of GVHD.

Umbilical Cord Blood Stem Cells

Rich Source of Stem Cells

  • Cord blood is believed to contain 10 times the amount of stem cells found in bone marrow of an equal portion.

Regenerative Source

  • Because stem cells found in cord blood are younger, they are more likely than stem cells found in bone marrow to have proliferative properties; this means that stem cells found in cord blood have a greater ability to regenerate.

Availability

  • Some 30000 individuals are diagnosed annually with diseases that require stem cell transplants. However, of these individuals, 75% do not have a matching relative for a bone marrow transplant and 70% cannot find a matching donor. Because severe types of cancer as well as certain immune deficiencies and blood disorders such as specific cases of anemia require prompt treatment, many individuals die before they are able to find a bone marrow transplant donor. On the other hand, cord blood banking means that cord blood is readily available for transplants, a fact which is true for both private and public banking.

Pain

  • A cord blood transplant offers a quick and painless collection procedure since the stem cells are removed from the umbilical cord. On the other hand, a blood marrow transplant is an invasive procedure which requires a general anesthesia. Bone marrow is removed from the rear of the pelvic bone through a series of injections.

Advantages & Disadvantages of Different Stem Cell Sources

Sources of Stem Cell
Advantages
Disadvantages
Embryonic Stem Cell
  1. 1Pluripotency: can differentiate into any cell type in the body.
  2. 2Serve as a strong platform for pluripotency, developmental and lineage commitment studies.
  1. 1Ethical, religious and political concerns.
  2. 2Limited number of cells isolated from each embryo.
  3. 3High chance of transformation into cancer cells (teratomas).
  4. 4Cells instability in-vitro due to lack of proper imprinting patterns.
Adult Stem Cell
  1. 1No ethical, religious or political controversies.
  2. 2Effective in generation their tissue of origin.
  3. 3No risk of teratoma formation.
  4. 4Established clinical history.
  1. 1Often invasive collection procedure.
  2. 2Limited cell numbers in human body tissues.
  3. 3Limited differentiation capabilities.
  4. 4Limited supply.
  5. 5Limited availability of HLA – match donors.
Umbilical Cord Blood Stem Cells
  1. 1No ethical, religious or political controversies.
  2. 2Collection procedure is totally safe and noninvasive
  3. 3Abundant supply.
  4. 4Low viral contamination.
  5. 5Ability to store cord blood units in cord blood banks.
  6. 6No risk of teratoma formation.
  7. 7Lower risk of graft v/s host diseases (GvHD).
  8. 8Tolerance of HLA mismatching.
  9. 9Higher proliferation capacity compared with adult stem cells.
Limited number of stem cells per single cord blood unit.

Banking & Benefits

Cryoviva Biotech Pvt. Ltd.
129, Pace City -1,
Sector-37,
Gurgaon, Haryana 122001 India
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